RNS Number : 5733B
Rolls-Royce Holdings plc
05 March 2014

5 March 2014



Rolls-Royce Holdings plc

Publication of the annual report 2013


Rolls-Royce Holdings plc announces that its annual report for the year ended 31 December 2013 is now available on the Group's website at www.rolls-royce.com


Printed copies of this document will be posted to shareholders on or around 17 March 2014. A copy of the above document has been submitted to the National Storage Mechanism and will shortly be available for inspection at www.morningstar.co.uk/uk/NSM


In accordance with paragraph 6.3.5 of the Disclosure and Transparency Rules we set out below a management report extracted from the annual report in unedited full text. Accordingly, page references in the text below refer to page numbers in the annual report. Our final results announcement issued on 13 February 2014 contained a condensed set of financial statements.


The Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Company will take place at 11.00am on Thursday

1 May 2014 at The Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre, Broad Sanctuary, Westminster,

London SW1P 3EE.


The financial calendar for the next 12 months is set out below:


Financial calendar 2013-2015  


Ex-entitlement to C Shares  

23 April 2014  

Record date for entitlement to C Shares  

25 April 2014  

1st Interim management statement

1 May 2014

AGM, Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre, London  

11.00am 1 May 2014  

Record date for C Share dividend  

2 June 2014  

Deadline for receipt of C Share elections  

5.00pm 2 June 2014  

Allotment of C Shares  

1 July 2014  

Payment of C Share redemption monies  

3 July 2014  

Purchase of ordinary shares for CRIP participants  

By 11 July 2014  

Announcement of interim results  

31 July 2014  

Ex-entitlement to C Shares  

23 October 2014  

Record date for entitlement to C Shares  

24 October 2014  

Record date for C Share dividend

14 November 2014

Deadline for receipt of C Share elections  

5.00pm 1 December 2014  

2014 Financial year end  

31 December 2014  

Allotment of C Shares  

2 January 2015  

Payment of C Share redemption monies  

6 January 2015  

Preliminary announcement - 2014 full year results  

February 2015

2014 Annual report published  

March 2015



Investor relations:

Simon Goodson, Director - Investor Relations, Rolls-Royce plc

Tel: +44 (0)20 7227 9237 simon.goodson@rolls-royce.com


Strategic report


Chairman's review

This is my first Chairman's review. Before I joined Rolls-Royce I sensed that it would be an extraordinary privilege to serve such a great company with such a rich history. So it has proved to be. In the past nine months I have travelled widely and met a broad cross-section of colleagues, customers, suppliers and investors. All have been free with their time and open with their perspectives.


I have two dominant initial impressions. The first is of the pride that people across the world have in the activities and achievements of the Group. We have a team that really does aspire to be 'trusted to deliver excellence' in everything it does, yet is under no illusions about what this will take. There is pride but no sense of complacency.


The second impression is of opportunity. Some of our business segments face strong headwinds and there will be some inevitable volatility. But, overall, Rolls-Royce competes in markets characterised by long-term demand growth and the opportunity to add value. This is as true of the services we provide as it is of our products. These opportunities are increasingly global in nature. Rolls-Royce has a great British history but its future has to be as a great global company.


In 2013, Rolls-Royce delivered another year of growth in revenues, profits and order book. This performance was achieved against a background of significant global economic and political uncertainty. The 13 per cent of increase in the payment to shareholders to 22.0 pence reflects the confidence that the Board has in the fundamentals of the business as well as in its future prospects.


The increase in the payment to shareholders also recognises the importance that many of our investors place on annual cash returns. Nevertheless a key characteristic of Rolls-Royce is that it is a long-term business with technologies that take years to develop. This creates the necessity of a long-term view and for long-term investment, together with a commensurate attitude and mindset for risk.


Our strategy must be directed towards creating a sustainable business. For Rolls-Royce that means driving profitable growth whilst achieving a positive economic, social and environmental impact. We will deliver better power to our customers, use innovation to secure a better future, and build on today's achievements to develop a better business, ready to meet the challenges ahead.


Research and development, and innovation more broadly, are crucial. They will become more so as we strive to improve the quality and performance of our power systems and services. The Trent XWB, for example, has proved to be the most efficient large civil aero engine in the world. Design and development of that engine started in 2006. In our Marine business, innovation and the development of liquefied natural gas (LNG) power systems has led to the possibility of a 40 per cent reduction in a ship's CO2 emissions and the virtual elimination of sulphur and oxides of nitrogen emissions compared with conventional, diesel-powered craft. This presents a clear environmental and commercial opportunity. These innovations have also taken years to develop.


We are committed to both the short-term performance and to the long-term health of the Group. It is a matter of 'both-and', not 'either-or'. In my experience the most successful, most enduring organisations invest equivalent resource and imagination in the long-term health of their business as they do in their short to medium-term performance.


Dwelling on performance, I am totally supportive of John Rishton and the management team's operational focus on the 4 Cs - customer, concentration, cost and cash. John describes the progress, and the continuing opportunities, of these 4 Cs in this report. I am particularly pleased at the progress in improving customer service and delivery reliability. Engineering and technology companies can have an inbuilt tendency to focus on product rather than on customer. Yet it is our customers who pay our bills and finance our investments. It is of the highest strategic and commercial importance that we deliver on our product and service commitments to our customers.


Over and above the continuing need for investment, I would like to comment on a couple of themes relating to long-term health: diversity and good governance.


I have remarked already on the need for Rolls-Royce to establish itself as an even more global Group. This will require us to become more diverse in our workforce and in our people development. To achieve our aspirations we have to attract, retain and develop the best talent everywhere we operate - commercial as much as engineering, female as much as male.


We are making real progress. Our global apprenticeship programme enjoys worldwide renown. Our record graduate intake in 2013 includes 32 nationalities from 97 universities around the world. Additionally we continue to broaden internationally our network of University Technology Centres which are so important to our future. But more needs to be done.


We can and need to do more to attract and, particularly, retain exceptional women. The engineering sector has not always been a favoured destination for well-qualified women and there may be cultural and historical reasons for this. For a Group like Rolls-Royce, this should be as much an opportunity as a problem. Purposeful diversity is an important part of our long-term planning.


Fundamental to a healthy company are strong ethical standards and behaviours, supported by good governance. As John Rishton has repeatedly made clear, the Group will not tolerate improper conduct. We are striving to ensure that every single Rolls-Royce employee knows what is expected of them and understands the standards to be met. The Board and management are united in this endeavour. In particular, I will focus on ensuring that we have the appropriate governance arrangements and structures in place to reinforce the required conduct and behaviours, wherever we operate.


Over recent years, the Board and management have been greatly assisted by the wise counsel of our International Advisory Board (IAB) whose membership is described on page 38. The IAB's primary role is to provide context on political and economic developments around the world and to alert the Group to possible long-term opportunities, threats and risks. They are also available to provide counsel and support in specific areas of expertise. I am grateful to the IAB members for their contributions.


I am also indebted to my fellow Board directors for their hard work and remarkable commitment to our Group as well as for their patience and good humour in dealing with the new Chairman. The Board has been augmented in January 2014 by Lee Hsien Yang and Warren East, both of whom bring a wealth of experience in global technology oriented industries. Further details of their careers are included on pages 36 and 37. I am delighted that they have joined the Group.


In the Queen's Birthday Honours, Michel Dubarry, Rolls-Royce International President - France, Head of Europe and Northern Africa, was awarded an OBE. In the New Year's Honours, Hamid Mughal, Director of Manufacturing, received an OBE and my fellow Board member, Warren East, a CBE. Their recognition is well deserved and I congratulate each of them.


I would also like, in closing, to acknowledge Sir Simon Robertson for his inspirational chairmanship and leadership of the Board. I am sure that, over time, I will forgive him for being such a hard act to follow.


I feel honoured to have the opportunity to serve as Chairman of Rolls-Royce. We have, and will have, challenges. However, I would be disappointed if this review does not convey my deep sense of opportunity to improve both short-term performance and to build the long-term health of the Group. 2013 was a good year for Rolls-Royce and I would like to thank my colleagues for their hard work and efforts in making this happen.


Ian Davis


12 February 2014


Chief Executive's review


In 2013, Rolls-Royce continued to grow its order book and expand its portfolio. The Group increased its underlying profits, and underlying revenues. The order book increased to £71.6 billion.


This performance demonstrates both the long-term demand for our products and services, and the confidence our customers place in us.


We strive continually to improve quality, performance and cost. To that end we invest in innovation, infrastructure and in the global workforce upon whose ability and ambition our current and future success entirely depends. I am impressed every day by the commitment and professionalism of my colleagues around the world and I thank them for their hard work.


The leaders of the Group have devoted considerable time and energy into articulating the vision, values, strategy and business priorities that we share, as well as setting out the standards of behaviours expected from everybody at Rolls-Royce. Providing clarity on these core beliefs, and making sure they are understood by everyone in the Group will enable us to better serve our customers and secure a profitable future for our employees and shareholders.


Vision: better power for a changing world


Values: trusted to deliver excellence


Strategy: customer, innovation, profitable growth


These are described in greater length on pages 8 and 9.


Our business priorities in 2013 remained the same as in previous years, and have been characterised as 'The 4 Cs':


Customer - deliver on the promises we have made


Concentration - decide where to grow and where not to


Cost and Cash - improve financial performance


In 2013, we have made progress in all of these, although there remains much more to do.



It is essential that we deliver on the promises made to our customers. Across the business we have significantly improved on-time delivery. This foundational step will strengthen our customer relationships and drive more efficient use of resources, such as inventory. In Civil aerospace, on-time delivery to our wide-body customers was 100 per cent in 2013 for the first time.


In 2013, major milestones were achieved in a number of important programmes. The Airbus A350 XWB flew for the first time powered by our Trent XWB engines. We have now received orders for more than 1,600 Trent XWBs, making this our bestselling Trent engine. The Trent 1000 engine, which powers the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, has achieved the best performance of any new wide-body engine entering service, with a 99.9 per cent despatch reliability. In June, it was selected by Singapore Airlines to power 50 Boeing 787 aircraft. In Marine, the first of our innovative Environships went to sea. This vessel combines a wave-piercing bow, gas-powered engines and advanced propulsion systems that together reduce CO2 emissions by 40 per cent, compared with equivalent diesel-powered vessels. Lastly, BAE Systems announced that the UK's Type 26 Destroyer programme will feature four MTU diesel gensets from Power Systems, together with our Trent-derived MT30 gas turbines.



Concentration means deciding where to invest for future growth and where not. We have two technology platforms: gas turbines and reciprocating engines. Within gas turbines, we have a strong Civil aerospace business, with over £60 billion in orders. We will continue to invest here, including in the next generation of narrow-body aircraft engines. We will also look for opportunities to expand in reciprocating engines.


In 2013, we acquired Hyper-Therm HTC, a specialist ceramics company, to increase our capabilities in ceramic matrix materials that will, in the future, play a critical part in improving the performance of gas turbine engines. We also acquired a Norwegian company, SmartMotor AS, a leader in the permanent magnet technology employed in our Marine business. We integrated PKMJ Technical Services, a US-based nuclear engineering services business with expertise in extending the life of nuclear plants.


Areas where we have decided not to grow include the sale of our 50 per cent holding in the RTM322 helicopter engine programme to Turbomeca, a Safran company.



The highly regulated nature of the aerospace industry means that it will take both time and tenacity to drive cost out of the business, and we are still not where we need to be. However there are a number of areas where progress is being made. We reduced indirect headcount by 11 per cent, with further savings identified for 2014. Unit cost fell in Marine, Energy and Power Systems, although this was more than offset by an increase in Civil, where capacity growth has preceded volume growth and the cost per unit has predictably risen. We are building newer, more efficient facilities and capacity that will support a doubling of production of Trent engines. We are moving production away from high cost countries, and we are consolidating our supply chain. These actions will deliver benefits over time.


We have prioritised investment that improves operational performance, adds to our technical capability and reduces cost. This includes a shop floor IT modernisation programme that will increase operational efficiency and an Integrated Production Systems programme that will improve delivery to customers while reducing cost.



The Group delivered a cash inflow of £359 million (£312 million excluding Tognum), after payments to shareholders, prior to acquisitions, disposals and foreign exchange. Inventory has been an area of significant focus. While substantially improving our on-time delivery to customers and preparing for the ramp-up in volumes, we have improved inventory turns from 3 times to 3.4 times, excluding Tognum. This is one of the largest one-year improvements in our stock turns.


We continue to invest significantly to deliver our order book. In 2013, capital expenditure was £687 million (£590 million excluding Tognum and £491 million in 2012). This included two new aero-engine test facilities: one at the NASA Stennis Space Center in Mississippi, US, and the other at Dahlewitz, Germany. We have extended our global Marine services network with a new facility in Guangzhou, China. An advanced aerofoil machining facility at Crosspointe in Virginia, US, will begin production in 2014. In the UK, production has started at our new state-of-the-art fan disc factory in Washington, Tyne and Wear and we are also close to completing a new turbine blade factory in Rotherham.


In January 2013, we appointed Lord Gold to lead a review of our process and procedures regarding compliance and business ethics. This followed our report to the Serious Fraud Office (SFO) of concerns about bribery and corruption involving intermediaries in overseas markets. In December, the SFO confirmed that it had begun a formal investigation into these matters. We have co-operated fully with the regulatory authorities and will continue to do so.


During the year, we published a new Global Code of Conduct. Under a programme implemented in 2013, all employees are asked to certify they have: received a copy of the Global Code; read and understood it; will comply with it; and have received a management briefing. I have made it explicit that we will not tolerate improper business conduct of any sort. We have updated and re-launched our confidential reporting line for employees, now known as the Ethics Line, available 24 hours a day, to make sure that we can hear about and address any matters of concern. It is important that everyone at Rolls-Royce recognises that they are an ambassador for the Group. We have set out three common behaviours that will make sure we maintain high ethical standards, build trust with our customers and each other and help secure the long-term success of our business:


win right - securing business fair and square;


focus with firm resolve - decide what needs to be done, then focus relentlessly on delivery - refusing to be distracted; and


communicate - simply, consistently and often.


Every aspect of the Group's performance results from the endeavours of the 55,000 men and women who share a vision of delivering 'better power for a changing world'. It is their ingenuity and commitment alongside our continued investment in technology, that allows us to seize the opportunities that our changing world presents and to face the future with confidence.


John Rishton

Chief Executive

12 February 2014


Our vision, business model, strategy and values

Rolls-Royce is a global Group, providing integrated power solutions for customers in civil and defence aerospace, marine, energy and power markets. Our products work in mission-critical environments where safety is paramount. Read more on pages 14 to 23.


Our vision

Better power for a changing world


Since its earliest days, Rolls-Royce has been striving to achieve ever higher standards. Our vision is delivering 'better power for a changing world'.


Better: we will succeed only by continually raising standards. We constantly improve quality, performance and cost. We are inquisitive, energetic and 'better' every day. Even when we may be the best, we must continue to get better.


Power: we are a power systems company that develops, sells and services mission critical products. Our customers demand innovation that improves performance and reduces the environmental impact of our power systems.


Changing world: the world around is changing rapidly and the pace of change is accelerating. New markets are emerging, shifting the balance of economic power. Regulation is, rightly, driving the requirement for cleaner power and setting new standards for business conduct. Our continuous investment in technology, our ingenuity and our commitment to excellence allow us to seize the opportunities that change presents and to face the future with confidence.


Our business model

Our business model places emphasis on reducing costs so that we can generate the funds we need to deliver our vision of 'better power for a changing world'.


The business model is built around our core strategic themes of customer, innovation and profitable growth. We are a power systems company based on two technology platforms, gas turbines and reciprocating engines. Continuous investment in innovation delivers better products and services on behalf of customers. This allows us to meet their needs and grow profitably to the benefit of our shareholders.


Around the core strategic themes of the model we:


Grow sales for original equipment and the associated aftermarket through developing strong routes to market based on customer relationships, understanding and knowledge. Allocate capital in a disciplined way, choosing where to grow, and where not to. Reduce costs and generate cash, to enable profitable growth from our order book and the maintenance of a strong balance sheet. Fund research, development, infrastructure and future programmes. Our financial resilience and resources provide a firm foundation from which to invest. Risk and Revenue Sharing Arrangements are a particular feature of the civil aerospace sector as a means of sharing risk due to the scale of investment required for large gas turbines.


Our Strategy

We operate in competitive markets. Our competitors are well-funded, ambitious and full of smart people. Our strategy will enable us to win by focusing on three powerful themes: customer; innovation and profitable growth.



Customer: placing the customer at the heart of our organisation is key. We need to listen to our customers, share ideas, really understand their needs and then relentlessly focus on

delivering our promises.



Innovation: is our lifeblood. We must continually innovate to remain competitive. To drive

innovation, we create the right environment - curious, challenging, unafraid of failure, disciplined, open-minded and able to change with pace. But most importantly, we ensure

our innovation is relevant to our customers' needs.


Profitable growth

Profitable growth: by focusing on our customers, and offering them a competitive portfolio of

products and services, we will create the opportunity to grow our market share. Of course we have got to make sure that we are not just growing, but growing profitably. That means

ensuring our costs are competitive. We look after our cash and we win right.


Our values

We say we are 'trusted to deliver excellence', but simply being Rolls-Royce does not give us the right to make that claim. Trust takes a long time to earn and can be lost in an instant.


Trust: is earned by doing what we say we will. It demands care, consistency, courage and competence. Trust commits us to high ethical standards - it is central to who and what we are.


Deliver: part of being trusted. We must deliver on our promises, meeting our customers' requirements for quality, delivery, responsiveness and reliability, always recognising that the safety of our products and our people is paramount.


Excellence: if we are trusted, and we deliver, then we will be regarded as excellent.



Chief Financial Officer's review







 Order book £m  




 Underlying revenue £m  




 Underlying profit before tax £m  




 Underlying earnings per share  




 Full year payment to shareholders  




 Reported revenue £m  




 Reported profit before tax £m  




 Reported earnings per share




 Net cash £m  



 Average net cash/(debt) £m  




* 2012 figures have been restated to reflect the adoption of amendments to IAS 19 Employee Benefits and the change in accounting policy for RRSAs.


2013 was another good year for the Group, with significant growth in our order book, good growth in underlying revenues and profits, coupled with a cash inflow, but as ever, there are some areas where progress has been slower than I would have liked. Our confidence in the future remains high, reflected in our increased final payment to shareholders but, as you would expect me to say, we have more to do on cost and cash across the Group to deliver the future performance implicit in this confidence.


The results reflect the full consolidation of Rolls-Royce Power Systems AG (formerly Tognum AG) from 1 January 2013. Previously, Tognum was accounted for as a joint venture.


Order intake in the year of £26.9 billion saw the order book grow yet again to reach record levels. This reflects £2.5 billion from Power Systems and £18.9 billion from our Civil business reflecting a very successful year for the Trent XWB. This vote of confidence from our customers gives good visibility and underpins our confidence to invest for the future.


Underlying revenues and profit before tax increased by 27 per cent and 23 per cent respectively. Prior to the impact of consolidating Power Systems, underlying revenue growth was six per cent and profit advanced by 11 per cent. The 11 per cent growth in profits reflected strong margins in Defence, the benefit of the IAE International Aero Engines AG (IAE) restructuring which was executed in the middle of 2012 and a lower research and development charge against profits. Profits were adversely impacted by price pressure in our Marine business and the pace of cost reduction in our Civil business.


Our largest business, Civil aerospace, was the backbone of the Group's order increase and saw revenue grow steadily. The installed base saw more engines flying more hours. Profit benefited from the higher volumes, the new IAE trading arrangements and higher entry fees from our partners. However, our Civil profits were held back by higher unit costs where progress has lagged our expectations, but the actions we have taken in 2013 will yield savings in 2014.


Defence aerospace performed very well in 2013, largely due to higher export sales and lower research and development (R&D) spend. Services held up well, albeit with some softness on flying hours of military transport aircraft. We expect a 15-20 per cent decline in both Defence revenue and profit in 2014 as we complete some major export delivery schedules. We expect original equipment revenue to decrease by 30-40 per cent due to fewer deliveries of engines to power the C130Js, V-22 Ospreys and Typhoons, as well as fewer Adour engine kits.


As always, it is important to put this into perspective. Our Defence business has had two very good years of revenue and profit growth. Which means the numbers we are guiding for in 2014, bring us back only to 2011 revenue levels, and we expect growth again in 2015.


Marine's offshore and merchant markets continue to see intense competition driven by overcapacity and price pressure. This affected the order intake during the year that sees order cover for 2014 at a lower level than we started 2013. In this challenging environment, we made some good progress on cost, but have more to do if we are to compete more effectively. Our Naval business remains stable.


Energy saw some improvement in 2013 and we continue to work hard to improve further its financial performance.


Power Systems delivered a very strong second half performance, contributing £2.6 billion to revenue in 2013 (nil in 2012) and an underlying profit before tax of £257 million (2012 £77 million). We are very pleased with Power Systems and it remains a key part of our desire to go to market via two strong technology platforms: gas turbines and reciprocating engines.


Our cost base can be broadly split between 85 per cent relating directly to our delivered product, ten per cent indirect (commercial and administration) and five per cent on R&D. We continue to push hard on product cost as we work with the internal and external supply chains and although Civil unit costs increased in 2013, we did realise improvements in Marine and Energy. We expect to see progress across all our segments in 2014. In terms of indirect cost, we achieved our objectives to reduce headcount by 11 per cent, primarily through voluntary severance arrangements. After taking into account the related restructuring costs during the year, the benefits to this reduction will be seen in future years.


We were pleased with the cash inflow of £359 million at Group level, prior to acquisitions, disposals and foreign exchange, which included an inflow of £47 million from Power Systems. Net working capital improved slightly, reflecting a good second half performance on inventory and higher deposits, mainly in Civil, flowing from the order intake. We made good progress on inventory, improving turns from 3 to 3.4 times (excluding Power Systems), helped by a consistent focus in the second half of the year.


Cost and cash remain areas of intense focus going forward.


In terms of financial reporting, please note the following:


1. To better align our reporting structure with our organisation, going forward we will report as: Aerospace and Marine & Industrial Power Systems (MIPS). Aerospace comprises Civil aerospace and Defence aerospace. MIPS comprises our Marine, Power Systems, Energy and Nuclear businesses. Our Nuclear Submarines business will be reported within Energy and Nuclear. We will continue to report the same level of financial detail for our business segments as we normally do.


2. Consistent with past practice and IFRS accounting standards, the Group provides both reported and underlying figures. We believe underlying figures are more representative of the trading performance, by excluding the impact of year end mark-to-market adjustments, principally the GBP/USD hedge book. In addition, post-retirement financing and the effects of acquisition accounting are excluded. The adjustments between the underlying income statement and the reported income statement are set out in more detail in note 2 to the financial statements. This basis of presentation has been applied consistently since the transition to IFRS in 2005.


3. The Group has changed its accounting policy in respect of entry fees arising from Risk and Revenue Sharing Arrangements (RRSAs) following discussions with the Conduct Committee of the Financial Reporting Council (FRC). This is covered further in note 1 to the financial statements.


RRSAs with key suppliers are a feature of our Civil aerospace business. Under these arrangements the workshare partner shares in the risks and costs of developing an engine and during the production phase, supplies components and receives a share of the programme revenues over the life of the engine programme. The share of development costs borne by the workshare partner and of the revenues it receives reflect the proportionate forecast cost of providing their parts compared to the overall forecast manufacturing cost of the engine. The contribution to the development costs is achieved by the workshare partner performing their own development work, providing parts in the development phase and paying a non-refundable cash entry fee, such that both parties bear their proportionate share of the forecast nonrecurring development costs.


Historically, we recognised the entry fee as income when received, which we believed matched it to the recognition of nonrecurring development costs incurred on behalf of the workshare partner. However, this did not take account of the fact that we capitalise some of our non-recurring development costs. Therefore, where we capitalise those costs, we will now defer the equivalent portion of the entry fee received and recognise it as the related costs are amortised in the production phase. As required by Adopted IFRS, we have made this change retrospectively; the impact of the change in policy in 2012 has been to increase profit before tax by £25 million and to reduce net assets at 31 December 2011 and 2012 by £184 million and £170 million respectively. Had the policy not been amended, profit before tax in 2013 would have been £39 million higher and at 31 December 2013 net assets £208 million higher.


Adopted IFRS does not explicitly deal with payments of this nature from suppliers and so, in developing an accounting treatment for entry fees that best reflects the commercial objectives of the contractual arrangement, we have analysed key features of RRSAs in the context of relevant accounting pronouncements and have had to weigh the importance of each feature in faithfully representing the overall commercial effect. Consequently this is a judgemental area. The judgements we have taken in respect of this matter are set out in detail in note 1 to the financial statements. In summary, our view is that the development and production phases of the contract should be considered separately in accounting for the RRSA, which results in the entry fee being matched against the non-recurring development costs as described above.


The FRC Conduct Committee's view is that the RRSA contract cannot be divided into separate development and production phases, as the fees and development components received by the Group during the development phase are exchanged for the obligation to pay the supplier a predetermined share of any sales receipts during the production phase. On this basis the entry fees received would be deferred in their entirety and recognised over the period of production.


The FRC Conduct Committee has confirmed that, in view of the change to the policy and the additional disclosure we have made, it does not intend to pursue its consideration of this accounting policy further. We will keep the size of the difference under review, and do not currently expect the difference between the two approaches to become material in the foreseeable future.


We consider that the policy we have adopted best reflects the commercial effect of the agreements and is in accordance with Adopted IFRS. So far as we can tell, it is also aligned with the approach taken by others in our industry under both IFRS and US accounting standards (which we believe does not conflict with IFRS in this regard).


The impact of the different approaches on profit before tax and net assets is as follows:




Reported profit before tax


Underlying profit before tax


Net assets


Reported profit before tax


Underlying profit before tax


Net assets


Previous policy














Adopted policy














Alternative policy 1







1 Consistent with FRC Conduct Committee's view


Underlying income statement


£ million           








Civil aerospace




Defence aerospace












Power Systems







Profit before financing and taxation




Civil aerospace




Defence aerospace












Power Systems







Central costs



Net financing




Profit before taxation








Profit for the year







Payments to shareholders




Gross R&D investment




Net R&D charged to the income statement




* 2012 figures have been restated to reflect the adoption of amendments to IAS 19 Employee Benefits and the change in accounting policy for RRSAs.


Underlying revenue increased £3.3 billion to £15.5 billion, of which £2.6 billion was due to the inclusion of Rolls-Royce Power Systems AG (RRPS) from 1 January 2013. The remaining increase (six per cent) reflects a seven per cent growth in OE revenue and a four per cent increase in services revenue. Original equipment performance included growth of 21 per cent in Energy, 13 per cent in Defence aerospace and 12 per cent in Marine. Underlying services revenue continues to represent around half (47 per cent) of the Group's underlying revenue. In 2013, services revenue grew in all businesses, as the installed base of products continued to grow and the services network expanded.


Underlying profit before financing and taxation increased 22 per cent to £1.8 billion, including £190 million from the consolidation of RRPS from 1 January 2013. Excluding RRPS, the increase was due to a number of factors: increased revenue; continued strong margins in Defence aerospace and the restructured relationship with IAE.


Further discussion of trading is included in the business segment reports on pages 14 to 23.


Underlying financing costs increased 18 per cent to £72 million, including £10 million from RRPS.


Underlying taxation was £434 million, an underlying tax rate of 24.7 per cent compared with 22.1 per cent in 2012. The Group's tax payments are described on page 137.


Underlying EPS increased 10 per cent to 65.59 pence, lower than the increase in the underlying profit after tax due to the NCI share of RRPS.


Payments to shareholders: at the AGM on 1 May 2014, the directors will recommend an issue of 134 C Shares with a total nominal value of 13.4 pence for each ordinary share. Together with the interim issue on 2 January 2014 of 86 C Shares for each ordinary share with a total nominal value of 8.6 pence, this is the equivalent of a total annual payment to ordinary shareholders of 22.0 pence for each ordinary share. Further details are on page 43.


Net underlying R&D charged to the income statement increased by 18 per cent to £624 million including £174 million from RRPS, reflecting a combination of increased spend of £33 million offset by higher net capitalisation of £61 million (due to the phasing of major new programmes, in particular the certification of the Trent XWB 84k), R&D tax credits of £28 million and net deferral of RRSA entry fees of £26 million. The Group continues to expect net R&D investment to remain within four to five per cent of Group underlying revenue.


Reported profit before tax has reduced from £2,766 million to £1,759 million. In addition to the changes in underlying profit before tax described above, reported profit before tax has been affected by (i) the impact of mark-to-market adjustments on derivative contracts (£497 million reduction); (ii) the impact of consolidating RRPS (£322 million reduction, comprising the unrealised profit on reclassification to a subsidiary, the additional amortisation on recognised intangible assets and the revaluation of the put option on NCI); (iii) the net impact of disposals (£483 million reduction, disposal of RTM322 in 2013 more than offset by the restructuring of IAE in 2012); and (iv) the cost of providing discretionary pension increases (£64 million). The reported tax charge is affected by the related tax impact of these items and the reduction of tax rates in the UK. This is set out in more detail in note 2 to the financial statements. 


Balance sheet

£ million


1 January 2013 including

Power Systems


31 December


Intangible assets




Property, plant and equipment




Net post-retirement scheme deficits




Net working capital




Net funds








Net financial assets and liabilities




Joint ventures and associates




Other net assets and liabilities




Net assets




Other items

USD hedge book (US$ billion)



TotalCare assets 1



TotalCare liabilities 2



Net TotalCare assets



Gross customer finance contingent liabilities



Net customer finance contingent liabilities



* 2012 figures have been restated to reflect the adoption of amendments to IAS 19 Employee Benefits and the change in accounting policy for RRSAs.

1 Included in amounts recoverable on contracts (note 13).

2 Included in amounts and deferred income (note 16).


Intangible assets (note 9) represent long-term assets of the Group. These assets increased by £121 million with additional development, certification and software costs being largely offset by annual amortisation charges. The carrying values of the intangible assets are assessed for impairment against the present value of forecast cash flows generated by the intangible asset. The principal risks remain: reductions in assumed market share; programme timings; increases in unit cost assumptions; and adverse movements in discount rates. There have been no significant impairments in 2013.


Property, plant and equipment increased by £283 million due to the ongoing development and refreshment of facilities and tooling as the Group prepares for increased production volumes.


Net post-retirement scheme deficits (note 19) reduced by £100 million as a result of adopting the amendments to IAS 19. During the year, the net deficit fell by £49 million, principally due to the movements in the assumptions used to value the underlying assets and liabilities in accordance with IAS 19. This reduction in the deficit was after agreeing to fund additional pension increases in the Rolls-Royce Pension Fund, where there is no indexation for pre-1997 service, at a cost of £64 million.


Overall funding across the schemes has improved in recent years as the Group has adopted a lower risk investment strategy that reduces volatility going forward and enables the funding position to remain stable: interest rate and inflation risks are largely hedged, and the exposure to equities is around 11 per cent of scheme assets.


The Group's funding of its defined benefit schemes is expected to increase modestly in 2014, largely as a result of funding the discretionary benefits.


Net funds increased by £0.6 billion to £1.9 billion due in part to the £250 million proceeds received on the sale of the Group's interest in the RTM322 engine. Average net funds were £350 million.


Investments in joint ventures and associates increased by 15 per cent, largely as a result of retained profits in existing joint ventures.


Provisions largely relate to warranties and guarantees provided to secure the sale of OE and services.


Net financial assets and liabilities relate to the fair value of foreign exchange, commodity and interest rate contracts, financial RRSAs and the put option on the NCI of Rolls-Royce Power Systems Holding GmbH, set out in detail in note 17. The change largely reflects the inclusion of the put option. There is also an impact of the change in the GBP/USD exchange rate on the valuation of foreign exchange contracts and the movement in put options on NCI of £259 million. The USD hedge book increased ten per cent to US$24.7 billion. This represents around four years of net exposure and has an average book rate of £1 to US$1.59.


Net TotalCare® assets relate to Long-Term Service Agreement (LTSA) contracts in the

Civil aerospace business, including the flagship services product TotalCare. These assets represent the timing difference between the recognition of income and costs in the income statement and cash receipts and payments.


Customer financing facilitates the sale of OE and services by providing financing support to certain customers. Where such support is provided by the Group, it is generally to customers of the Civil aerospace business and takes the form of various types of credit and asset value guarantees. These exposures produce contingent liabilities that are outlined in note 18. The contingent liabilities represent the maximum aggregate discounted gross and net exposure in respect of delivered aircraft, regardless of the point in time at which such exposures may arise.


During 2013, the Group's gross exposure reduced by £213 million to £356 million, due largely to the expiry of guarantees. On a net basis, exposures reduced by £11 million.


Segmental reporting

During 2013, we have revised the internal structure of the business to focus on (i) aerospace; and (ii) marine and industrial markets. The internal reporting structure has been developed to reflect this. Consequently, in accordance with IFRS 8 Operating Segments, from 1 January 2014, we will report the Group's segments as follows:


Aerospace, comprising Civil aerospace and Defence aerospace; and


Marine and Industrial Power Systems, comprising Marine, Power Systems, Energy and Nuclear.


The 2013 figures on the revised basis are included in note 26 to the financial statements.


Group 2014 guidance

For the full year 2014, we expect underlying Group revenue and profit to be flat. This reflects a significant decline in Defence revenue, as we complete the delivery phase of a number of major export programmes. Additionally, the largest part of our Marine business, Offshore, will generate lower revenue in 2013. We expect growth to resume in 2015 as Civil and Defence deliveries increase.


We expect profitability to be much stronger in the second half of 2014, reflecting the timing and mix of trading and cost reduction. To be more consistent with market practice, our cash guidance in the future will be based on free cash flow. We expect our 2014 free cash flow to be similar to 2013 (£781 million).


Additional financial information can be found on pages 137 and 138.



Civil aerospace




• First flight of the Airbus A350 XWB powered by Trent XWB engines

• First flight of the Boeing 787-9 powered by Trent 1000 engines

• Major new Trent orders from JAL, IAG, Lufthansa, United, Singapore and Etihad

• Delivered the 3,000th BR700 series engine


Key financial data






Order book £m*











Engine deliveries*






Underlying revenue £m











Underlying OE revenue £m






Underlying service revenue £m






Underlying profit before financing £m












*all years prior to 2012 include IAE order book and engine deliveries include IAE V2500


Rolls-Royce powers more than 30 types of commercial aircraft and has almost 13,000 engines in service around the world.


What we do

The Civil aerospace segment is a major manufacturer of aero engines for the airliner and corporate jet markets. We have particular strengths in the wide-body market where Rolls-Royce has a 54 per cent share of aircraft on order. Demand for our products and services remains robust.


2013 financial review

The order book increased 22 per cent, including new orders of £18.9 billion (£10.3 billion in 2012). Trent engines and aftermarket services now constitute 73 per cent of the Civil aerospace order book.


Revenue increased three per cent, including three per cent growth in OE revenue. There was a 20 per cent increase in business jet engine deliveries and a small increase in Trent engines. Profit increased 14 per cent, reflecting higher volumes, the £112 million higher benefit from the restructured trading relationship with IAE and £26 million higher RRSA entry fees.


In 2014, we expect modest growth in revenue and good growth in profit.


How we are performing

The airline industry saw global passenger traffic up around five per cent in 2013. Airlines in developed markets benefited from a modest economic recovery. In many developing markets there were significant increases in traffic supported by economic growth and market liberalisation.


Civil Large Engines: Nearly 1,400 Trent 700 engines for the Airbus A330 have been delivered to date and during 2013 Airbus delivered the 1,000th aircraft. The milestone aircraft and its Trent 700 engines were accepted by Cathay Pacific, the first airline to put the Trent 700 into service in 1995.


Important milestones were achieved in two major Civil Large Engine programmes. In June, the first flight of the new Airbus A350 XWB was powered by our Trent XWB engines. Then in September, the Boeing 787-9 version of the Dreamliner took to the skies for the first time, powered by our Trent 1000 engines.


Singapore Airlines Group placed a major order with us to power 50 Boeing 787 aircraft with Trent 1000 engines.


In July, we celebrated the first delivery of two new Rolls-Royce powered aircraft to the British Airways fleet - the Airbus A380 and the Boeing 787 Dreamliner.


In September, we announced that, due to the current regulatory environment, we would not proceed with a planned joint venture with United Technologies Corporation to develop an engine to power future mid-size aircraft. Rolls-Royce remains fully committed to this important market segment and we continue to invest in technologies that will enable us to take advantage of opportunities as they arise.


The Trent XWB will enter service in 2014 with Qatar Airways. This is the best-selling Trent engine yet, with more than 1,600 engines already on order.


Significant orders for the Trent XWB came from airlines in Europe, North America, the Middle East and Asia and these included a landmark first ever engine order for Rolls-Royce from Japanese airline JAL.


Corporate and regional: In our corporate and regional engine business, we delivered the 3,000th BR700 series engine. This engine series powers the Gulfstream G500 and G550, the Bombardier Global 5000 and Global 6000 (BR710), the Boeing 717 (BR715) and the Gulfstream G650 (BR725).


The first production version of the Cessna Citation X business jet flew in August, powered by our AE 3007C engines. Deliveries of the new aircraft are due to begin in early 2014.


Services: Revenue from services for civil airliners increased by three per cent in 2013, reflecting continued growth in the fleet of widebodied engines. More than 1,100 aircraft in service are covered by TotalCare.


Some 1,500 business aircraft are covered by CorporateCare® and in 2013 more than 70 per cent of customers for new Rolls-Royce powered business jets enrolled in CorporateCare.


Future priorities and opportunities

In 2014, particular priority will be given to supporting the smooth entry into service of the Airbus A350 XWB. Rolls-Royce is the sole engine supplier for this new aircraft, and orders for the Trent XWB represent 53 per cent of the Civil aerospace order book.


Significant management attention will continue to be paid to financial performance, in particular reducing costs and improving inventory turn.


Developing new technology for future engine programmes and enhancing existing products remains a major priority.


Market outlook: We estimate that the global civil engine market will be worth approximately US$1,750 billion over the next 20 years, with US$1,050 billion being for original equipment and US$700 billion of aftermarket services. Over half of this value comprises engines for twin aisle airliners and large business jets, where Rolls-Royce is currently the number one engine supplier in terms of market share. Our forecasts are based on our own internal forecasting tools, data from Ascend Online Fleets and airline schedules from Official Airline Guide (OAG).).


Defence aerospace



• TP400-powered A400M entered service

• MissionCare contract for Saudi Arabian EJ200 engines secured

• 1,500th AE 2100 engine delivered

• Upgraded AE 1107 engines for V-22 Osprey

• T56 enhancement kits gained first sales

• Delivered 40th Rolls-Royce LiftFan for F-35B Lightning II fighter programme

• RTM322 helicopter engine programme sold to Turbomeca


Key financial data







Order book £m











Engine deliveries






Underlying revenue £m











Underlying OE revenue £m






Underlying service revenue £m






Underlying profit before financing £m













We are the second largest provider of defence aero-engine products and services globally, with around 16,000 engines in service with over 160 military customers in more than 100 countries.


What we do

Our engines power aircraft in every major market sector including transport, combat, patrol, trainers, helicopters, and unmanned aerial vehicles.


2013 financial review

The Defence order book declined 21 per cent (15 per cent decrease in 2012) reflecting continued budgetary pressures on our major customers. The net order intake of £1.6 billion was five per cent higher than the previous year. Revenue increased seven per cent, reflecting a 13 per cent increase in OE and a two per cent increase in services. Strong OE growth was driven by higher export sales, particularly of our EJ200 and Adour engine programmes. Profit increased 11 per cent due to higher volumes and lower R&D spending.


In 2014, we expect a decline in revenue and profit of between 15-20 per cent before growth resumes in 2015. This one year decline is the consequence of well publicised cuts in defence spending among major customers, and the completion of the delivery phase of a number of major export programmes. After two record years, this re-basing, supported by cost reduction programmes, will position the business well for future growth.


How we are performing

2013 was a challenging year as traditional markets continued to experience unprecedented budgetary pressures. While this environment creates risks for existing business, it also presents opportunities for us to develop innovative solutions to meet the evolving needs of our customers. Nowhere is this more evident than in the area of services where we have the opportunity to help customers manage their budgets and costs more efficiently.


We also continue to pursue new equipment sales opportunities in global markets such as Asia and the Middle East where budgets are less constrained.


MissionCare contracts worth £492 million were secured in 2013. These included the first MissionCare contract for the support of EJ200 engines in Saudi Arabia.


In order to get closer to our customers, we are expanding our presence at operational bases. During 2013, we opened a new support facility at RAF Marham in the UK and announced another at Tinker Air Force Base in the US.


In-service fleets continue to benefit from technology enhancements, with the upgraded AE 1107 now providing 17 per cent more power for the V-22 Osprey aircraft. The latest T56 enhancement kits achieved Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) certification and recorded their first sales in the US, where fuel savings in the US Air Force C-130 fleet could amount to billions of dollars.


Our leading position in transport was underpinned by the entry into service of the A400M powered by TP400 engines, broadening our portfolio in a market where the Rolls-Royce powered C-130 is the leading player. This year we delivered our 1,500th AE 2100 engine for the C-130J.


The Rolls-Royce LiftSystem® continued to perform well as the F-35B Lightning II aircraft expanded its flight test programme and deliveries to the US Marine Corps accelerated. We delivered the 40th Rolls-Royce LiftFan and the 50th 3 Bearing Swivel Module (3BSM).


In order to concentrate our resources on markets where we can add greatest value, we sold our share in the RTM322 helicopter engine programme to Turbomeca, a Safran company, in September 2013. To further improve efficiency, we have reconfigured our organisation to bring us closer to our major customers.


We expect our services business to continue to grow as we continue to provide customers with greater capability.


Future priorities and opportunities

We are focused on managing costs to ensure we maximise our ability to compete and win in an increasingly uncertain market.


Our inclusion in the Hawk Advanced Jet Training System team to pursue the US Air Force T-X training contract provides just one of several paths to growth. Customers also continue to invest in their transport aircraft fleets, where we have a strong position. Defence applications for the Trent 700 should increase as the Airbus A330 tanker aircraft is selected by more military customers. The UK's fleet of tankers continues to expand with Rolls-Royce benefiting both as the engine supplier and as an AirTanker shareholder.


Market outlook: We estimate a business opportunity over the next 20 years of US$155 billion in original equipment and US$260 billion in services. Source: Forecast International 2014.





• A range of world 'firsts' of LNG-powered vessel types delivered

• MT30 selected for the new UK MoD Type 26 Frigate

• £800 million contract agreed with UK MoD for provision of future nuclear submarine

  propulsion systems

• New UT 830 seismic survey vessel launched

• COSCO ordered new wave-piercing design of offshore vessels

• Third service centre in China opened


Key financial data







Order book £m











Underlying revenue £m











Underlying OE revenue £m






Underlying service revenue £m






Underlying profit before financing £m






financing £m







* 2011 figures restated due to transfer of Bergen to Power Systems segment


The Marine segment has 4,000 customers and equipment installed on over 25,000 vessels worldwide, including those of 70 navies.


What we do

We are leaders in the provision and integration of complex, mission-critical systems for offshore oil and gas, merchant and naval vessels. We are located in 35 countries, and have a global service network supporting our customers' operations around the clock.


Our advanced ship designs combine the latest technologies to offer highly-efficient solutions for ship owners and operators including a range of engines using liquefied natural gas (LNG).


2013 financial review

The order book increased one per cent including new orders of £2.7 billion (£3.3 billion in 2012). In 2013, we saw stable order inflow in our Merchant and Naval businesses. This was offset by weaker order flow in Offshore, where the phasing of projects has slowed growth in some of our key products. Revenue increased 12 per cent, reflecting higher sales in both new equipment and in services. Growth was particularly strong in Offshore and in Naval, offset by further weakening in our Merchant business, which declined 11 per cent. Profit decreased four per cent as volume growth was more than offset by pricing pressure and a less favourable mix. In 2013, profitability was also offset by investments in Marine to better position the business for future growth, including higher spending on R&D and restructuring costs.


In 2014, we expect a modest decline in revenue, with a modest increase in profit. The nuclear submarine business will be reported in the Energy and Nuclear segment going forward.


How we are performing

The global shipbuilding industry has had a challenging year. Important factors driving the market continue to be ship efficiency, environmental performance and value for money.


Merchant: The adoption of LNG as a marine fuel is gaining momentum: the first LNG-powered cargo vessel of our Environship design took to the seas in May; the world's first LNG-powered cruise ferry entered service during the summer; and the world's first LNG-powered tug boat was delivered. We also won our first contract to convert a diesel-powered cargo ship to LNG. Bergen engines using LNG fuel are all provided via the Power Systems business segment.


Naval: Our MT30 gas turbine was successfully installed in the Royal Navy's new aircraft carrier, HMS Queen Elizabeth. The MT30 was also selected by BAE Systems for the UK's new Type 26 Frigate programme and has now been selected by navies in the UK, US and South Korea, across five types of ship. We delivered a new design of water jet to the US Navy's Littoral Combat Ship programme.


This year we opened a new facility in Derby, UK, to support our Submarine business. In February, we agreed an £800 million contract with the MoD for the provision of nuclear propulsion systems for the UK's submarine flotilla. A critical design gate was successfully passed by our new nuclear plant design, PWR 3.


Offshore: We delivered one of our most advanced vessels to date, when a UT 830 seismic survey ship was launched. It features a wealth of Rolls-Royce equipment integrated into our own vessel design. It is now at work identifying oil and gas reserves around the world.


Our wave-piercing hull design was chosen for the first time in Asia, when Chinese customer COSCO announced an order for two UT vessels, with options for four more. These will feature a range of

Rolls-Royce equipment, and include MTU diesel gensets from our Rolls-Royce Power Systems AG subsidiary. Several contracts were won to supply our largest azimuth thrusters for drill ships.


We enhanced our technology portfolio through the acquisition of a Norwegian company, SmartMotor AS, a leader in permanent magnet technology.


Services: We offer customers a global service capability through a network of 37 workshops in 28 countries. With more than 1,100 service engineers, we provide round-the-clock support wherever our customers need it and offer not only repair and overhaul but also a growing number of vessel upgrades to improve efficiency. We also train our customers in the operation of our equipment in our training centres in Norway, Singapore and Brazil. This year, we opened our third workshop in southern China.


Future priorities and opportunities

The key priorities for the Marine segment are to increase our competitiveness in a challenging market and continue to develop innovative technologies.


We will continue to develop the synergies between the Marine and Power Systems segments. We are working with a number of oil majors, in developing the availability of LNG. The aftermarket offers growth opportunities as we continue to utilise our growing global network of service engineers and workshops. In Submarines, our focus is on maintaining customer confidence by achieving our savings commitment to the MoD through increased operational efficiency.


Market outlook: We see a business opportunity over the next 20 years of US$270 billion for original equipment and US$125 billion for services (not including nuclear submarine business). Based on our own forecasting tools.





• 33 RB211s ordered for oil and gas applications

• Major service contract secured with Petrobras

• New Santa Cruz, Brazil, assembly plant operational

• Signed tripartite agreement with Rosatom and Fortum to assess nuclear reactor design for UK new build

• Renewed agreement with Westinghouse to provide nuclear inspection services in the US


Key financial data







Order book £m











Engine deliveries






Underlying revenue £m











Underlying OE revenue £m






Underlying service revenue £m






Underlying profit before financing £m












* 2011 figures restated due to transfer of Bergen to Power Systems segment


Energy has sold 4,600 gas turbines with 180 million operating hours recorded. Rolls-Royce has over 50 years of experience in the nuclear industry.


What we do

Our Energy segment supplies customers with aero-derivative gas turbines, compressors and related services.


In Civil Nuclear, we provide products and services spanning the nuclear reactor life-cycle from concept design and installation to obsolescence management and plant life extension. We have a strong position in nuclear instrumentation and control systems.


2013 financial review

The order book increased by 14 per cent with new orders of £1.1 billion (£0.8 billion in 2012). The business saw a strong recovery in order intake in oil and gas. Power generation markets remain suppressed. In Civil Nuclear, we continue to extend the suite of products and services that we offer to nuclear utilities to enable them to achieve safe, efficient and reliable lifetime reactor operations. Revenue increased nine per cent, driven by higher OE volumes in our oil and gas business. Profit increased by £7 million, reflecting higher volumes, partially offset by strong pricing pressure and continued investment in our Civil Nuclear business. We continue to work to improve the financial performance of the business. In 2014, Energy will include nuclear submarines to form our Energy and Nuclear business. We expect good growth in revenue and profit, with further improvement in the return on sales.


How we are performing

Oil and gas: In total, 33 RB211 gas turbines were ordered for oil and gas applications, 22 of which were for pipeline compression projects. This includes a US$175 million contract from Asia Gas Pipeline for 12 units.


Our new purpose-built packaging, assembly and test facility in Santa Cruz, Brazil, became operational and the first units were delivered to Petrobras for use in its deepwater offshore production activities.


Power generation: Demand continued to be subdued for new power generation capacity in mature economies. Seven Trent 60 units were ordered, including five for the SARB offshore oilfield project in the UAE.


We released enhanced power ratings for the Trent 60 gas turbine, consolidating its position as the most powerful aero derivative available.


Services: We continue to strengthen both our aftermarket products and services capability as well as our penetration of the installed fleet, resulting in a six per cent year-on-year increase in aftermarket revenue.


Currently 24 per cent of the core engine fleet is under long-term service agreements. During the year we received several new major service contracts including a US$138 million five-year contract from Petrobras to support 15 of its RB211 industrial gas turbine power generation units installed on four oil platforms operating in the Campos Basin.


Civil Nuclear: We strengthened our strategic relationships during the year with AREVA,

Westinghouse, Hitachi, EDF and Rosatom.


Our acquisition of PKMJ Technical Services in the US means we now provide services to every nuclear utility in the US and Canada.  We continued to deliver the instrumentation and control (I&C) upgrade for EDF's fleet of 1,300MW nuclear reactors in France and provided I&C systems and components for seven new nuclear reactors currently under construction in China.


Future priorities and opportunities

Our focus is on growing our market position in oil and gas, including opportunities in pipelines and LNG. In power generation, we will benefit from any recovery in industrial demand for electricity.


In Civil Nuclear our priorities will continue to be satisfying our customers, winning new orders and high-quality delivery. Improving operational efficiency will be a key feature for the Nuclear business during 2014.


We will assess potential investments in high-value manufacturing in order to contribute positively to a successful new build programme for the UK.


In international markets, we will extend the suite of products and services that we offer to nuclear utilities to enable them to achieve safe, efficient and reliable lifetime nuclear reactor operations.


Market outlook: In the oil and gas, and power generation sectors, the Group's 20-year forecast values demand for total aero-derivative gas turbine and compressor systems at more than US$60 billion and associated services at around US$60 billion. Sources: McCoy Power reports, LEK Consulting, Booz & Co., IEA, Infield Systems and our own forecasting tools. We estimate a demand for nuclear mission-critical equipment, systems, engineering and support services of US$610 billion over the next 20 years. Based on nuclear capacity forecasts from the International Energy Agency, the World Nuclear Association, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Department of Energy.


Power Systems



• MTU Powerpacks ordered for UK Intercity Express Programme

• Fjord Line ordered Bergen engines for cruise ferries

• Upgraded Series 1163 engines introduced

• UK MoD selects MTU gensets alongside MT30 gas turbine

• Polish partnership to be created to supply and maintain cogeneration plants

• Mining trucks powered by MTU delivered to Rio Tinto in Australia





Order book £m




Underlying revenue £m




Underlying OE revenue £m




Underlying services revenue £m




Underlying profit before financing £m





The table above shows a trading comparison as if both Tognum and Bergen Engines had been fully consolidated in 2012

as well as in 2013


Rolls-Royce and Daimler AG each has a 50 per cent shareholding in Rolls-Royce Power Systems Holding GmbH. Power Systems is based in Friedrichshafen in Southern Germany and, together with its worldwide subsidiaries, employs around 11,000 people. It specialises in reciprocating engines, propulsion systems and distributed energy systems. The company previously operated under the name of Tognum AG. In 2013, Bergen Engines AS, including its subsidiaries, was contributed to the business.


What we do

The product portfolio includes MTU-brand high-speed engines and propulsion systems for ships, for heavy land, rail and defence vehicles, and for the oil and gas industry. Under the MTU Onsite Energy brand, the company markets diesel and gas gensets for applications such as emergency, base load, peak load or cogeneration. Bergen Engines AS manufactures medium-speed engines for marine and power generation applications. L'Orange completes the portfolio, producing fuel injection systems for large engines.


2013 financial review

The order book increased 6 per cent, with new orders of £2.7 billion (£2.8 billion in 2012). The

final quarter of 2013 saw strong sales, driven by the pre-purchase of engines for industrial, including agricultural, applications ahead of the introduction of tighter environmental standards in Europe. Marine revenue is well supported by demand from navies in Asia and the US. In defence, major programmes to power military tanks provide stability despite continued pressure on government spending. Revenue decreased 0.5 per cent with good growth in the Marine and Industrial divisions offset by lower revenue in oil and gas, medium-speed engines and lower aftermarket sales. Profit increased 0.3 per cent, reflecting a strong second half.


In 2014, we expect modest growth in revenue and good growth in profit driven by growth in marine and land power systems markets.


How we are performing

2013 proved a challenging year. Headwinds confronting the business included the Eurozone crisis, US fiscal challenges and slowing of growth in emerging countries. General nervousness about the global economic environment led to constrained order activity within the market.


Despite these adverse market conditions, a number of significant orders and contracts were achieved.


As outlined in the Marine segment review, Power Systems also benefited from contracts awarded by Chinese customer COSCO and from the UK MoD for the generator sets of the Royal Navy's future Type 26 Frigate. The Type 26 propulsion system will consist of a combination of four MTU diesel gensets and a Rolls-Royce MT30 gas turbine. These examples highlight the synergies and benefits of complementary product portfolios.


MTU introduced the upgraded Series 1163 marine engines for IMO Tier II and IMO Tier III emission standards. These are cleaner and more fuel-efficient than the previous generation and offer a better power-to weight ratio.


For the British Intercity Express Programme, MTU received orders of rail Powerpacks with Series 1600 engines. The Powerpacks will drive Hitachi's future high-speed trains which are scheduled to go into service from 2017 on Great Western Main Line and East Coast Main Line routes. Twenty locomotives built by Chinese manufacturer, Dalian Locomotive & Rolling Stock and powered by MTU engines went into service in Argentina.


China-based Xiangtan Electric Manufacturing Corporation shipped its first ever export of mine dump trucks to the Pilbara mine site in Australia for Rio Tinto. Each of the 230 metric-ton trucks is powered by an MTU mining engine.


The Fjord Line shipping company ordered Bergen gas-powered engines. Its Stavangerfjord and Bergensfjord cruise ferries, both 170 metres long, are each to be equipped with four Bergen B-gas engines. The engines ensure that these ships already meet future IMO Tier III limits as well as satisfying mandatory EU regulations projected for 2015, for sulphur emissions from ferries.


In addition to these contract wins, we continue to build capacity through joint ventures and partnerships. L'Orange has established a consortium with Hoerbiger, for the supply of equipment for large-scale diesel and dual-fuel engines for the Asian market. Onsite Energy and regional Polish energy supplier Kogeneracja Zachód intend to form a partnership for the supply and maintenance of cogeneration plants. Over the coming years, both companies plan on working exclusively with each other to supply small- to medium-sized Polish cities with environmentally friendly energy from CHP plants.


Future priorities and opportunities

Our long-term growth relies on five pillars: power; propulsion; services; regional expansion and the product portfolio.


In 2014, we expect most markets to stabilise although some segments are expected to remain difficult. This leads us to expect continued volatility in revenues. Overall we expect to see a positive performance primarily driven by marine applications.


We will invest in future technologies to maintain our technological leadership. We are configuring our different engine series to meet tougher emission standards. At the same time we will improve efficiency and keep a focus on costs and cash in all other areas.


Market outlook: We estimate the total market opportunity for high-speed engine original equipment over the next ten years to be €280 billion. The forecast data is taken from a range of sources including: Global Insight; Oxford Economics, Diesel and Gas Turbine Worldwide, Clarkson Research and our own internal forecasting tools.


Engineering and technology

In 2013, we invested £1,118 million in gross research and development (R&D) of which £746 million was funded by the Group, prior to receipts from risk and revenue sharing arrangements.


We continually pursue innovation that will improve the performance of our power systems and benefit our customers.


We have developed and actively deployed a new innovation portal to improve the exchange of ideas around the world as we invest to improve the efficiency of our global R&D footprint.



We have an engineering resource inside the Group of around 16,600 engineers. Many work as integrated teams across borders on our major programmes and a number of our top engineers, or Rolls-Royce Fellows, are recognised as world-renowned experts in their fields.


We continued our commitment to recruit and develop the very best engineers and scientists, and the first cohort of our evolving internal Specialist Academy has graduated in October 2013. The Academy has been designed for technologists who have the potential to join the Rolls-Royce Fellowship at the very top of our specialist career ladder.


Research and technology

World-class technology gives us competitive product performance. We generate the largest number of patents of any UK company, 549 new patent applications were approved for filing in 2013 (including Rolls-Royce Power Systems AG). To further expand our capabilities, we acquired Hyper-Therm HTC, a US-based specialist in ceramic materials; and SmartMotor, a world leader in permanent-magnet machines and drives technology, headquartered in Norway. In addition, we acquired from GKN the 49 per cent of Composite Technology and Applications Limited (CTAL) that we did not already own, giving us 100 per cent ownership. CTAL is engaged in the development of composite fan blades and containment cases for the next generation of advanced turbofan engines.


In 2013, we further increased our investment in early-stage research and technology to about 20 per cent of the net R&D spend. We have good visibility of stable, long-term government match-funding for research investments in aerospace technologies following the creation in the UK of the Aerospace Technology Institute, and in the EU through the Clean Sky 2 Joint Technology Initiative in Horizon 2020 and continuous German support via Luftfahrtforschungsprogramm (LuFo) V.


University technology Centres

In addition to our significant in-house R&D capability, we pursue advanced technologies via a global network of 29 University Technology Centre (UTC) partnerships. Each centre is part-funded by the Group and works closely with our engineering teams, undertaking specialist work led by world-class academics. In 2013, Nanyang Technological University joined this network with the launch of the

Rolls-Royce@NTU Corporate Lab, a joint investment of SGD$75 million (£38.5 million) between Rolls-Royce, Nanyang University and the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Singapore.


Our model of developing technology through collaboration with academia and other partners was recognised by the German Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology which benchmarked 160 European companies: Rolls-Royce was one of five companies to receive the 'Successful Practices' award in technology management in 2013.


Research and development

Flight test results have shown the Trent XWB to be the world's most efficient large, civil, aero engine.


The Trent 1000 Package C received EASA certification in September and a few weeks later powered the newest version of the Dreamliner, the Boeing 787-9 on its first flight from Seattle, USA.


The Joint Strike Fighter F-35B, with short take -off and vertical landing (STOVL) capability provided by the Rolls-Royce LiftSystem®, successfully completed its second set of carrier trials aboard the USS Wasp in August 2013. In September, the T56 engine Series 3.5 technology enhancement program received FAA approval and has now been chosen to power the 'Hurricane Hunter' aircraft of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.


In 2013, we received the Green Ship Technology Award for our Environship concept - a design for cargo ships that reduces CO2 emissions by up to 40 per cent compared to similar diesel powered vessels.







Gross research and development £m








Our teams around the world focus on improvement in all the classical operational metrics - safety, quality, cost, on-time delivery, inventory - while at the same time ensuring that the next generation of advanced products and processes are successfully industrialised.


Our operations employ 25,000 people in 17 countries at 85 Rolls-Royce facilities. In addition, 33 joint venture facilities, seven manufacturing technology partnerships and over 70 significant suppliers help us to meet customer demand.


Developing our capacity

This year we have extended our own capacity and capability. This included our new turbine blade factory in Rotherham, UK and our new 17,000 square metre, state-of-the-art discs manufacturing facility in Washington, UK, that has now started production. When fully operational later this year, it will have the capacity to manufacture over 2,000 fan and turbine discs annually. We are also taking steps to adjust capacity where market segments are contracting or demanding a lower price point. Although our diverse portfolio helps us balance growing and shrinking segments, we do expect an ongoing need to adjust capacity through plant renewal and closures.


Advanced manufacturing

We apply advanced technologies, methods and processes to deliver 'best in class' manufacturing performance through our Rolls-Royce Production System and the Advanced Manufacturing network, which has developed over the past five years.


The advanced centres in this network bring together university, government and industrial partners to provide a realistic testing ground for new industrial techniques that improve yield and reduce costs. These have proved to be successful both for Rolls-Royce and our supplier partners.


The Advanced Forming Research Centre in Glasgow, UK, the National Composites Centre in Bristol, UK and the Manufacturing Technology Centre in Coventry, UK, are expanding their facilities and the new Commonwealth Centre for Advanced Manufacturing in Richmond, USA, is now fully operational.


Our future Advanced Remanufacturing and Technology Research Centre in Singapore and High Temperature Components Centre of Excellence in the UK will ensure we lead in high-performance, low-emission turbine technology.


Our processes will increasingly include powder-based manufacturing, additive layer manufacturing technologies and ultra-high temperature materials. 'Knowledge-based manufacturing' is another developing area. Here, we will use dynamic computer models to design and verify processes. These approaches will increase design flexibility, speed of manufacture and performance.



Strong relationships with our suppliers are critical to our performance. We work closely to align our strategies as well as assessing performance through our Supplier Advanced Business Relationship (SABRE) requirements.


Rolls-Royce has taken a leading role in the establishment of the Aerospace Engine Supplier Quality Committee. Through this body, gas turbine engine makers and their suppliers - with input from regulatory agencies - aim to agree a set of common industry-wide standards. These will help remove variability and waste, enabling the aerospace supply chain to be leaner and more competitive.


To support UK suppliers in the global aerospace market, Rolls-Royce is sponsoring the UK Government-backed Sharing in Growth programme. It is a £110 million programme of intensive supplier development training and is expected to secure at least 5,000 high-value manufacturing jobs in aerospace. We are also supporting a £76 million Sharing in Growth programme in the nuclear industry.


We continue to seek new capabilities in emerging markets across the world through our supplier development groups. These help drive competition with our existing internal plants and suppliers, and also allow us to develop new markets - Brazil (Energy) and China (Marine) being good examples. We expect the proportion of our supplier spend in emerging markets to increase.


Information technology

In 2013, we invested over £100 million in IT, continuing with the modernisation of our IT infrastructure and also launching our Shop Floor IT modernisation programme. We have launched an Integrated Production Systems programme to address the need for simplified, globally scalable and secure systems. The programme will improve delivery to the customer whilst improving efficiency and reducing operating costs. We are also investing in our customer systems to improve the customer experience through the use of portals and digital workflow.


£687 million

Expenditure in 2013 on property, plant and equipment.


We are delivering customer and business benefits as we continue to invest at record levels and transform our industrial infrastructure.


Principal risks and uncertainties


The Group places great importance on the identification and effective management of risks. Our approach to enterprise risk management helps us to deliver our objectives and maximise the returns of the Group.


The following table describes the risks that the risk committee, with endorsement from the Board, considers to have the most material potential impact on the Group. They are specific to the nature of our business notwithstanding that there are other risks that may occur and may impact the achievement of the Group's objectives.


The risk committee discussions have been focused on these risks and the actions being taken to manage them.



Risk or uncertainty and potential impact

How we manage it

Product failure

•     Operating a safety first culture

Product not meeting safety expectations, or causing significant impact to customers or the environment through failure in quality control.

•     Our engineering design and validation process is applied from initial design, through production and into service

•     The safety committee reviews the scope and effectiveness of the Group's product safety policies to ensure that they operate to the highest industry standards (see safety committee report on page 52)

•     A safety management system (SMS) has been established by a dedicated team. This is governed by the Product Safety Review Board and is subject to continual improvement based on experience and industry best practice. Product safety training is an integral part of our SMS

•     Crisis management team led by the Director - Engineering and

Business continuity

Breakdown of external supply chain or internal facilities that could be caused by destruction of key facilities, natural disaster, regional conflict, financial insolvency of a critical supplier or scarcity of materials which would reduce the ability to meet customer commitments, win future business or achieve operational results.


•     Continued investment in adequate capacity and modern equipment and facilities (see operations section on page 25)

•     Identifying and assessing points of weakness in our internal and external supply chain, our IT systems and our  people skills

•     Selection and development of stronger suppliers (see operations section on page 25)

•     Developing dual sources or dual capability

•     Developing and testing site-level incident management and business recovery plans

•     Crisis management team led by the Director - Engineering and Technology or General Counsel as appropriate

•     Customer excellence centres provide improved response to supply chain disruption


Competitor action

The presence of large, financially strong competitors in the majority of our markets means that the Group is susceptible to significant price pressure for original equipment or services even where our markets are mature or the competitors are few. Our main competitors have access to significant government funding programmes as well as the ability to invest heavily in technology and industrial capability.

•     Accessing and developing key technologies and service offerings which differentiate us competitively (see engineering and technology section on page 24)

•     Focusing on being responsive to our customers and improving the quality, delivery and reliability of our products and services

•     Partnering with others effectively

•     Driving down cost and improving margins (see Chief Executive's review on pages 6 and 7 and Chief Financial Officer's review on page 10)

•     Protecting credit lines (see additional financial information on pages 137 and 138)

•     Investing in innovation, manufacturing and production (see operations section on page 25)

•     Understanding our competitors

International trade friction

Geopolitical factors that lead to significant tensions between major trading parties or blocs which could impact the Group's operations. For example: explicit trade protectionism; differing tax or regulatory regimes; potential for conflict; or broader political issues.

•     Where possible, locating our domestic facilities in politically stable countries and/or ensuring that we maintain dual capability

•     Diversifying global operations to avoid excessive concentration of risks in particular areas

•     Network of regional directors proactively monitors local situations

•     Maintaining a balanced business portfolio in markets with high technological barriers to entry and a diverse customer base

•     Understanding our supply chain risks

•     Proactively influencing regulation where it affects us (see sustainability on page 28)

Major product programme delivery

Failure to deliver a major product programme on time, to specification or technical performance falling significantly short of customer expectations would have potentially significant adverse financial and reputational consequences, including the risk of impairment of the carrying value of the Group's intangible assets and the impact of potential litigation..

•     Major programmes are subject to Board approval (see additional financial information on page 137)

•     Major programmes are reviewed at levels and frequencies appropriate to their performance against key financial and non-financial deliverables and potential risks throughout a programme's life cycle (see additional financial information on page 137)

•     Technical audits are conducted at pre-defined points performed by a team that is independent from the programme

•     Programmes are required to address the actions arising from reviews and audits and progress is monitored and controlled through to closure Knowledge management principles are applied to provide benefit to current and future programmes


Non-compliance by the Group with legislation or other regulatory requirements in the regulated environment in which it operates (for example: export controls; offset; use of controlled chemicals and substances; and anti-bribery and corruption legislation) compromising our ability to conduct business in certain jurisdictions and exposing the Group to potential: reputational damage; financial penalties; debarment from government contracts for a period of time; and/or suspension of export privileges or export credit financing, any of which could have a material adverse effect.

•     An uncompromising approach to compliance is now, and should always be, the only way to do business

•     The Group has an extensive compliance programme. This programme and the Global Code of Conduct are promulgated throughout the Group and are updated and reinforced from time-to-time, to ensure their continued relevance, and to ensure that they are complied with both in spirit and to the letter. The Global Code of Conduct and the Group's compliance programme are supported by appropriate training (see ethics committee report on pages 49 and 50)

•     A legal and compliance team has been put in place to manage the current specific issue (see ethics committee on pages 49 and 50) through to a conclusion and beyond

•     Lord Gold has reviewed the Group's current compliance procedures and an improvement plan is being implemented

Market shock

The Group is exposed to a number of market risks, some of which are of a macro-economic nature, for example, foreign currency exchange rates, and some which are more specific to the Group, for example liquidity and credit risks, reduction in air travel or disruption to other customer operations. Significant extraneous market events could also materially damage the Group's competitiveness and/ or credit worthiness. This would affect operational results

or the outcomes of financial transactions.

•     Maintaining a strong balance sheet, through healthy cash balances and a continuing low level of debt

•     Providing financial flexibility by maintaining high levels of liquidity and an investment grade 'A' credit rating (see additional financial information on page 138)

•     The portfolio effect from our business interests, both in terms of original equipment to aftermarket split and our different segments provide a natural shock absorber since the portfolios are not correlated

•     Deciding where and what currencies to source in, where and how much credit risk is extended or taken and hedging residual risk through the financial derivatives markets (foreign exchange, interest rates and commodity price risk - see additional financial information on page 137)

IT vulnerability

Breach of IT security causing controlled data to be lost, made inaccessible, corrupted or accessed by unauthorised users.

•     Establishing 'defence in depth' through deployment of multiple layers of software and processes including web gateways, filtering, firewalls, intrusion and advanced persistent threat detectors and integrated reporting

•     Security and network operations centres have been established

•     Active sharing of information through industry, government and security forums (see risk committee report on page 51)



Additional Financial Information


Foreign exchange

Foreign exchange rate movements influence the reported income statement, the cash flow and closing net cash balance. The average and spot rates for the principal trading currencies of the Group are shown in the table below:


     2013        2012                  Change




Year end spot rate         1.65        1.63        +1%

Average spot rate           1.56        1.59         -2%



Year end spot rate         1.20        1.23         -2%

Average spot rate           1.18        1.23         -4%


The Group's approach to managing its tax affairs

The Board is involved in setting the Group's tax policies which govern the way its tax affairs are managed. In summary, this means:


i) the Group manages its tax costs through maximising the tax efficiency of business transactions. This includes taking advantage of available tax incentives and exemptions;

ii) this must be done in a way which is aligned with the Group's commercial objectives and meets its legal obligations and ethical standards;

iii) the Group also has regard for the intention of the legislation concerned rather than just the wording itself;

iv) the Group is committed to building constructive working relationships with tax authorities based on a policy of full disclosure in order to remove uncertainty in its business transactions and to allow the authorities to review possible risks;

v) where appropriate and possible, the Group enters into consultation with tax authorities to help shape proposed legislation and future tax policy; and

vi) the Group seeks to price transactions between Group companies as if they were between unrelated parties, in compliance with the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines and the laws of the relevant jurisdictions.


The Group's global corporate income tax contribution

Over 95 per cent of the Group's underlying profit before tax (excluding joint ventures) is generated in the United Kingdom, United States of America, Germany, Norway, Finland and Singapore. The remaining profits are generated across more than 40 other countries. This reflects the fact that the majority of the Group's business is undertaken, and employees are based, in the above countries.


In common with most multinational groups, the total of all profits in respect of which corporate tax is paid is not the same as the consolidated profit before tax reported on page 75. The main reasons for this are:


i) the consolidated income statement is prepared under IFRS whereas tax is paid on the profits of each Group company, which are determined by local accounting rules;

ii) accounting rules require certain income and costs relating to our commercial activities to be eliminated from, or added to, the aggregate of all the profits of the Group companies when

preparing the consolidated income statement ('consolidation adjustments'); and

iii) specific tax rules including exemptions or incentives as determined by the tax laws in each country.


The Group's total corporation tax payments in 2013 were £238 million. The level of tax paid in each country is impacted by the above. In most cases, (i) and (ii) are only a matter of timing and therefore tax will be paid in an earlier or later year. As a result they only have a negligible impact on the Group's underlying tax rate which, excluding joint ventures, would be 27.1 per cent (the underlying tax rate including joint ventures can be found on page 12). This is due to deferred tax accounting, details of which can be found in note 5 to the financial statements. The impact of (iii) will often be permanent depending on the relevant tax law.


Investments and capital expenditure

The Group subjects all major investments and capital expenditure to a rigorous examination of risks and future cash flows to ensure that they create shareholder value. All major investments require Board approval.


The Group has a portfolio of projects at different stages of their life cycles. Discounted cash flow analysis of the remaining life of projects is performed on a regular basis.


Sales of engines in production are assessed against criteria in the original development programme to ensure that overall value is enhanced.


Financial risk management

The Board has established a structured approach to financial risk management. The Financial risk committee (Frc) is accountable for managing, reporting and mitigating the Group's financial risks and exposures. These risks include the Group's principal counterparty, currency, interest rate, commodity price, liquidity and credit rating risks outlined in more depth in note 17. The Frc is chaired by the Chief Financial Officer. The Group has a comprehensive financial risk policy that advocates the use of financial instruments to manage and hedge business operations risks that arise from movements in financial, commodities, credit or money markets. The Group's policy is not to engage in speculative financial transactions. The Frc sits quarterly to review and assess the key risks and agree any mitigating actions required.



£ million





Total equity



Cash flow hedges



Group capital



Net funds




Operations are funded through various shareholders' funds, bank borrowings, bonds and   notes. The capital structure of the Group reflects the judgement of the Board as to the appropriate balance of funding required.


Funding is secured by the Group's continued access to the global debt markets. Borrowings are funded in various currencies using derivatives where appropriate to achieve a required currency and interest rate profile. The Board's objective is to retain sufficient financial investments and undrawn facilities to ensure that the Group can both meet its medium-term operational commitments and cope with unforeseen obligations and opportunities.


The Group holds cash and short-term investments which, together with the undrawn committed facilities, enable it to manage its liquidity risk.


During the year, the Group issued €750 million 2.125% Notes maturing in 2021 and £375 million 3.375% Notes maturing in 2026.


At year end, the Group retained aggregate liquidity of £5.6 billion. This liquidity comprised net funds of £1.9 billion and aggregate borrowing facilities of £3.6 billion, of which £1.2 billion remained undrawn.


The maturity profile of the borrowing facilities is regularly reviewed to ensure that refinancing levels are manageable in the context of the business and market conditions. The only facility to mature in 2014 is a £200 million EIB loan. There are no rating triggers in any borrowing facility that would require the facility to be accelerated or repaid due to an adverse movement in the Group's credit rating.


The Group conducts some of its business through a number of joint ventures. A major proportion of the debt of these joint ventures is secured on the assets of the respective companies and is non-recourse to the Group. This debt is further outlined in note 11.


Credit rating





Moody's Investor Services




Standard & Poor's





The Group subscribes to both Moody's Investors Service and Standard & Poor's for independent long-term credit ratings. At 31 December 2013, the Group maintained investment grade ratings from both agencies.


As a capital-intensive business making long-term commitments to our customers, the Group attaches significant importance to maintaining or improving the current investment grade credit ratings.


Accounting and regulatory

The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), as adopted by the EU.


In 2013, the Group has adopted Amendments to IAS 19 Employee Benefits. There were no other revisions to IFRS that became applicable in 2013 which had a significant impact on the Group's financial statements.


A summary of changes which have not been adopted in 2013 is included within the accounting policies in note 1.


As explained in the Chief Financial Officer's review on page 11, following discussions with the Conduct Committee of the FRC, the Group has reassessed its policy for the recognition of entry fees received under RRSAs.


Governments and regulators around the world continue to implement reforms to the financial markets with the aim of improving transparency and reducing systemic risk. Although the reforms are predominantly directed at financial institutions, they will also affect non-financial institutions such as the Group.


The primary concern was the reform of the over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives market, and in particular a proposal in the EU European Market Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR) that parties to future OTC derivative transactions would be required to use an exchange to clear the transactions and post cash collateral to reduce counterparty risk. The proposal could have adversely affected the Group's future funding requirements and made cash flow more volatile.


The final EMIR rules have now been released, which exempt non-financial institutions engaged in hedging activity from this requirement.


Share price

During the year, the share price increased by 46 per cent from 873.5 pence to 1275 pence, compared to a 38 per cent increase in the FTSE aerospace and defence sector and 14 per cent increase in the FTSE 100. The Company's share price ranged from 873.5 pence in January to 1275 pence in December.




Going concern

As described on page 138, the Group meets its funding requirements through a mixture of shareholders' funds, bank borrowings, bonds and notes. The Group has facilities of £3.6 billion of which £2.4 billion was drawn at the year end. £200 million of these facilities mature in 2014.


The Group's forecasts and projections, taking into account reasonably possible changes in trading performance, show that the Group has sufficient financial resources. If the put option on Rolls-Royce Power Systems Holding GmbH (formerly named Engine Holding GmbH) is exercised by Daimler AG, (estimated cost £1.9 billion), the directors consider that the Group would be able to raise additional resources in the necessary timeframe to meet this  commitment. As a consequence, the directors have a reasonable expectation that the Company and the Group are well placed to manage their business risks and to continue in operational existence for the foreseeable future, despite the current uncertain global economic outlook.


Accordingly, the directors continue to adopt the going concern basis (in accordance with the guidance 'Going Concern and Liquidity Risk: Guidance for Directors of UK Companies 2009' issued by the FRC) in preparing the consolidated financial statements.


Responsibility statement

The Responsibility Statement below has been extracted in unedited text from the Company's full annual report for the year ended 31 December 2013. Certain parts of the annual report are not included within this announcement.


Each of the persons who is a director at the date of approval of this report confirms that to the best of his or her knowledge:


i) each of the Group and parent company financial statements, prepared in accordance with IFRS and UK Accounting Standards respectively, gives a true and fair view of the assets, liabilities, financial position and profit or loss of the issuer and the undertakings included in the consolidation taken as a whole;


ii) the strategic report on pages 1 to 34 and pages 137 to 138 of the directors' report include a fair review of the development and performance of the business and the position of the Company and the undertakings included in the consolidation taken as a whole, together with a description of the principal risks and uncertainties that they face; and


iii) the annual report, taken as a whole, is fair, balanced and understandable and provides the information necessary for shareholders to assess the Company's performance, business model and strategy.


By order of the Board

Nigel T Goldsworthy

Company Secretary

12 February 2014



Cautionary statement regarding forward-looking statements


This announcement contains forward-looking statements. Any statements that express forecasts, expectations and projections are not guarantees of future performance and will not be updated. By their nature, these statements involve risk and uncertainty, and a number of factors could cause material differences to the actual results or developments. This report is intended to provide information to shareholders, is not designed to be relied upon by any other party, or for any other purpose and the Company and its directors accept no liability to any other person other than that required under English law.


This announcement contains non-statutory accounts within the meaning of section 435 of the Companies Act 2006. The statutory accounts for the year ended 31 December 2013, upon which an unqualified audit opinion has been given and which did not contain a statement under Section 498(2) or 498(3) of the Companies Act 2006, will be filed in due course with the Registrar of Companies.


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